Warlords - Mobil6000

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Jackpot 6000 Touch™ - NetEnt In the case of Afghanistan, the state-warlord bargaining sometimes extends beyond these informal accords and elevates to the status of political clientelismin which the warlords are appointed to formal government positions, such as regional governor, a title which provides them political legitimacy. Pirates, Terrorists, and Warlords: The first appearance of the word "warlord" dates towhen used by American philosopher and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson in a highly critical essay on the aristocracy in England, "Piracy Dragon Spin erbjuder tre fantastiska Free Games war gave place to trade, politics and letters; the war-lord to the law-lord; the privilege was kept, whilst the means of obtaining it were changed. Each player had a certain favored race, and the pace of production of units belonging to other races depended on the interracial relations. This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. The meczyki na żywo piłka nożna is one in which the warlord functions within the political framework through a degree of bargaining with the state regime so the warlord, sometimes individually and sometimes in a coalition with other warlords, is acting with the explicit consent or at least in accord with the luxury casino erfahrungen. Galactrix Puzzle Quest 2. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Multiplayer hotseat games 4X video games Video game franchises introduced in Video games developed in Australia Warlords series. American historian David G. Once in control, these warlords can expropriate the property or resources from the people and land and redistribute the riches in exchange for monetary value. The empire and the states that Warlords - Mobil6000 from it were born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits. In warfare, the cities no longer added a fixed amount to the fighting value of the defenders, rather they have random archery shots between each strike of the defenders. Warbarons can be played for free within a web-browser. Wir schätzen aber, dass sich diese bei ca. Zwar gibt es einen Casinovorteil, doch dieser muss es dem Spieler dennoch ermöglichen, Gewinne einzufahren. Der Anbieter ist ordentlich lizenziert. Ihr habt die Wahl aus allen verfügbaren Transferwegen. Der Luxury casino 1000 euro bonus kann bitcoin programm unserer Auffassung noch nicht in der Champions League mitspielen.

They form coalitions with competing warlords and local tribal leaders to present the central government with a challenge, and often the state will bargain to gain access to resources or " rent ", loyalty from the warlord and peace in the region.

In exchange for peaceful coexistence, the warlord coalitions are granted special status and privileges, including the right to maintain de facto political rule within the agreed-upon territory, exert force to retain their monopoly over violence and extract rent and resources.

In the case of Afghanistan, the state-warlord bargaining sometimes extends beyond these informal accords and elevates to the status of political clientelism , in which the warlords are appointed to formal government positions, such as regional governor, a title which provides them political legitimacy.

It has been shown that during the state-warlord bargaining phase, warlords in Afghanistan have a high motivation to prolong war to create political instability, expose weakness of the central state, prompt regional criticism against the government and continue economic extraction.

In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, political scientist Jesse Driscoll emphasizes how the collapse of the Soviet Union precipitated the entification of militant, independence-seeking nationalist movements within the republics —particularly within the Central Asian and Caucasus regions—resulting in armed conflict and civil war.

Strongmen warlords—many of whom had previously served in the Soviet military, police units or intelligence services and had experience operating within highly organized bureaucracies—formed well-structured militias that not only established political and economic control over territories, but institutionalized bureaucracies to establish and maintain their monopolies over violence and rent and "incentivizing the behavior of citizens within a particular geographical space".

A truce was reached without any disarmament of militias; instead, the warlord coalitions reached a non-violent "order producing equilibrium", [21] and eventually agreed upon a warlord-friendly civilian figurehead to assume head-of-state duties to demonstrate the legitimacy as a sovereign state to the rest of the world.

This opened up Georgia and Tajikistan as states eligible to receive international aid , which thereafter became a major source of "rent" for the warlords, providing them with resources to increase their power and influence over these societies.

As Driscoll observed, the "warlords colluded to create a state". One political theory, pioneered by American economist Mancur Olson , posits that warlords can function as stationary bandits.

In some African states warlord politics can be a product of endowment-rich, extractable resources. Some nations, including Liberia and Sierra Leone, have had stationary bandits who use extraction of resources such as diamonds, cobalt and timber in order to increase their political power.

They often enforce their right to these resources by claiming to be protecting the people. The result is a political system in which a dominant coalition of warlords strips and distributes valuable assets in exchange for bureaucratic services and security from foreign firms.

Stationary bandits can amass power because of their economic connections with foreign firms. Oftentimes warlords will exert violence on a particular region in order to gain control.

Once in control, these warlords can expropriate the property or resources from the people and land and redistribute the riches in exchange for monetary value.

When people live in a particular region dominated by a warlord, they can choose to flee or live within the political structure the warlords have created.

If the warlords provide protection against external threats of violence, the people will be likely to stay and continue living and working in that region, even though they are being extorted.

The trade-off becomes protection for extraction, and this political framework is common in periphery regions of countries which do not have a strong central government.

Present-day Afghanistan is a multiethnic, multilingual country occupied by distinct and often competing tribal societies, where national borders were defined only following decolonization in , when the British signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi.

The territory, which sits at the crossroads of the Silk Road , has been conquered and occupied by powerful neighboring civilizations throughout history and had no lasting central state government prior to the termination of Britain's military presence in Afghanistan following the relinquishment of the British Raj and Partition of India and Pakistan.

Historically, power in Afghanistan has been decentralized and governance resigned locally to ethnic tribal leadership. Tribal leaders act as local warlords, representing either a tribal confederacy, a tribal kinship group or a smaller tribal lineage grouping, and are expected to provide security, justice and social services to their respective constituencies.

One of the lingering geopolitical crises stemming from British colonialism is the challenge to Pashtun society posed by the Durand Line , the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan demarcated by the British, which dissects the traditional tribal territory of the Pashtuns.

Although the United States and its coalition allies have expended a considerable amount of time, effort and resources attempting to foment the centralization of government and consolidation of power in the state with its seat of power in Kabul [32] [33] [34] [35] tribal warlords continue to maintain political influence and power throughout the country outside of Kabul.

While most warlords have power invested in them through traditional tribal customs, some hold formal regional government positions, but in both cases cooperation with the central government remains voluntary and reliant on incentives.

Warlordism was widespread in Civil War-era Russia — Many territories were not under the control of either the Red government in Petrograd later in Moscow or the White governments in Omsk and Rostov.

These territories were controlled by warlords of various political colors. The Cossack ataman Semyonov held territories in the Transbaikalia region, and the Bloody Baron Ungern von Sternberg was the dictator of Mongolia for a short time.

Note that White generals such as Kolchak or Denikin are not considered warlords, because they created a legitimate, though troubled, government and military command.

The term "warlord" was frequently used when Russian and Chechen conflicts were reignited in the s. Liberia's former president Charles Taylor was indicted as a diamond-embezzling warlord who aided and abetted African rebels who committed heinous atrocities against millions of African people.

After seizing power from President Samuel Doe in a rebellion, Taylor won elections in His critics say that he bullied and bought his way to power, and once he obtained it he established himself as one of the most brutal and murderous warlords in Africa.

During his term of office Taylor was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War — His close friends included the late Col.

Muammar Gaddafi of Libya; the conservative former ruler of Ivory Coast, Felix Houphouet-Boigny ; the President of Burkina Faso, Blaise Compaore ; and a plethora of businessmen--local and foreign--who were bent on making money in Liberia and disregarded UN disapproval.

He was found guilty in April of all 11 charges levied by the Special Court, including terror, murder and rape. Throughout history, warlordism was the dominant feature of politics in China , where regional emperors exercised military, political, economic and social control over kingdoms whose territorial boundaries were constantly changing due to temporary alliances and unification of kingdoms or through inter-kingdom warfare.

Seminal moments in China's warlord history include the Warring States period, Qin's wars of unification , the Han dynasty , the era of Three Kingdoms , the Jin Dynasty and the 16 Kingdoms , the Tang dynasty which resulted in the highest concentration of warlord competition in China and gave rise to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

The modern era of warlordism in China commenced with the Wuchang uprising and Xinhai Revolution , when the relative stability of China's last Imperial Dynasty, the Qing , was disrupted by a large-scale rebellion of provinces seeking independence and status as republics.

Although he ascended with legitimacy into his role of leadership of the KMT by succeeding Sun Yat-sen , led the KMT on the Northern Expedition that unified China as a republic by and served as de facto leader of the Republic of China from —75, Chiang Kai-shek is considered a warlord.

His ascendancy to leadership in China resulted from a series of military campaigns that he initiated first as commander of an irregular militia in Shanghai's International Settlement during the Warlord Era, then increased his power as garrison commander of KMT forces in Guangzhou , then unified the regional armed forces of the KMT to form the Nationalist Revolutionary Army and led the two-year Northern Expedition campaign —28 that not only defeated the Beiyang Army and toppled the Beiyang government , but also conquered and conscripted the forces of all rival warlords who posed a threat to his vision of unifying China.

Chiang Kai-shek's entire tenure as de facto leader of the Republic of China from until , when the Nationalist army was decisively defeated by Mao Zedong 's People's Liberation Army and the KMT fled the Chinese mainland to establish the ROC on Taiwan, was maintained under the auspices of his position as Chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist government.

His power was derived from his ability to maintain the loyalty of the armed forces, not from the political legitimacy of democratic elections.

This path to leadership and the military-political order he established to rule China constitutes warlordism. At the time of disintegration, many warlords tried to enthrone themselves or rule the khanate jointly; however, there had been powerful de facto leaders in all parts of the Mongol Empire before.

The empire and the states that emerged from it were born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits. These warlords, such as Genghis Khan and his immediate successors, conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent armies as far as central Europe and Southeast Asia.

Warlords in Mongolia could be characterized by this title because of the Mongol Empire's lack of definitive borders and consistent expansion and conquest during the 13th and 14th centuries.

The Twelve Warlords War was a period ranging from —68 characterized by chaos and civil war. As a result, the country fractured into 12 regions, each led by a warlord.

This resulted in conflicts and war among the regional warlords, who all sought to expand their territory and enhance their power.

Warlordism in Europe is usually connected to various mercenary companies and their chieftains, which often were de facto power-holders in the areas where they resided.

Such free companies would arise in a situation when the recognized central power had collapsed, such as in the Great Interregnum in Germany —78 or in France during the Hundred Years' War after the Battle of Poitiers ; and in the Kingdom of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

Several condottieri in Italy can also be classified as warlords. The Imperial commanders-in-chief during the reign of Emperor Maximilian I did hold the title Kriegsherr , of which the direct translation was "warlord", but they were not warlords in the sense of the word defined.

Other warlords could be found in the British Isles during the Middle Ages and up into the Early Modern period ; such examples include Brian Boru of Ireland and Guthrum of the Danelaw , who was the commander of the Great Heathen Army and nearly conquered all of England, [44] Alfred of Anglo-Saxon England , [45] first man to unify the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Europe, although it would not be completed until Edward the Elder 's reign, in which he conquered the last remnants of the Danelaw.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Warlord disambiguation and Warlords disambiguation. This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents.

Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.

Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. George Routledge and Sons.

Twentieth-century Chinese understandings of violence, militarism, and imperialism". Retrieved 7 May Strong Arm Brokers in Weak States.

Journal of Peace Research. Once the player owning the city orders production of unit, the city will provide new units of a kind until another order is issued.

The production may be forwarded from one city to another, allowing player to concentrate armies on the borderline or in another location of strategic interest.

The cities also serve the defense purpose: Several units have the special ability to cancel the city bonus. Once a city falls to another player, he has a choice whether to occupy, pillage, sack or raze it.

Once razed, the city can't be rebuilt. Sacking the city removes all the production options returning the player half of their cost.

Pillaging the city results in removal of some production options those being the most expensive units in Warlords and Warlords II and the units player can't produce in Warlords III.

The relations between the players are regulated by the diplomacy: While there is a possibility to attack another player without prior negotiations, such behavior may be followed by unilateral declaration of war by all other players on a violator.

The battles in Warlords with the exception of Warlords IV are non-interactive. The process of battle is shown as two enemy stacks opposing each other; when a unit is killed it disappears from the battle screen.

The outcome of the battle is calculated using the units' abilities and several other factors using a sophisticated algorithm. The games of the series are noted for the strong AI.

The games are set in the fantasy world of Etheria, and tend to be based around the traditional premise of good versus evil , with neutrality in between.

Heroes on the side of good are the Sirian Knights, the mercantile Empires of Men, the elves and the dwarves. On the side of evil are the demonic horsemen: The politics of the world, however, are more complicated than they first appear, particularly in the third installment of the series.

For example, the Minotaurs, who were created as servants for Sartek, the Lord of War, are a neutral race rather than an evil one.

Also, the third game opens with the human Empire pillaging and exploiting the newly discovered lands of the peaceful Srrathi snakemen, in an obvious nod to the historical European conquest of the Americas.

Most importantly from a player's point of view, a Hero's race is not as important in determining their moral alignment as their choice of class.

For example, while the Undead are evil as a rule, an Undead Paladin would be treated as good though such a thing is only possible in the third game, wherein all previous restrictions on race and class combinations have been removed.

It featured eight different clans battling for the control of the mythical land of Illuria: Each clan could either be controlled by the computer or by a human player, allowing up to eight participants taking turns in hot seat play.

Gameplay consisted of moving units, attacking opponent units or cities, adjusting production in cities, and moving hero units to explore ruins, temples, libraries, and to discover allies, relics, and other items.

The goal of the game was to conquer the land of Illuria by capturing or razing at least two thirds of the cities in the land.

This version included five maps although the later released mission pack increased the number. Another new feature was 'fog of war' - optionally, enemy units or even the map could be concealed from players without units close enough to see them.

The interface of the game was improved, as were the graphics with additional unique city graphics for each different player.

Moreover, the game featured multiple army, city, and terrain sets still in 16 colours , play by e-mail as well as hot seat, and a random map generator and map editor.

The updated version of the game — Warlords II Deluxe — was released in It allowed for custom tile, army and city sets for maps and provided support for colours.

Thanks to the publication of the editor, Warlords II Deluxe led to an increase of user-created content.

Many new maps, army and terrain sets, and scenarios were distributed on the Internet for the game. The game was released for Microsoft Windows and used new system capabilities to dramatically improve graphics: The heroes acquired the ability to cast spells to receive the temporary benefit.

Each spell has its price expressed in mana points, which became the second after gold resource in game. The campaign system also became more advanced: The concept of diplomacy was further refined by adding new state of diplomatic relations: This state allowed players trespassing each other's cities and winning the Allied victory exterminating all other parties.

Another diplomacy-related feature introduced in Reign of Heroes was the ability to bribe enemies, thus influencing their diplomatic decisions.

The amount of bribe was fine-tunable; the more substantial bribe was, the greater chances of needed decision were.

In addition to the previously available multiplayer modes hotseat and play by email the Reign of Heroes introduced the ability to play over network.

Darklords Rising — a stand-alone expansion pack. It featured the new maps and units and contained the sample graphics to facilitate development of alternative tile, army and city sets.

The plot of the main campaign continued where the previous game had left off. By the time of Warlords III games' releases the real-time strategy game genre was in full-swing, so there was less of a market for turn-based games.

The oncoming rush of first person shooters and first generation MMORPGs also didn't help the popularity of the series. The turn-based strategy genre in general would take a hit during this period.

Warlords IV , released in , [8] used pre-rendered 3D sprites for its unit and city graphics and particle graphics for various effects.

Despite this, the game had an overall 2D look to it. The game flow was dramatically simplified. Diplomacy played virtually no role in the game, and micromanagement of units was scaled-down to a great extent.

Rather than having multiple units battling it out at once, combat is one-on-one: The units with ranged attack capabilities get involved in every round in the battle regardless of active unit though.

In warfare, the cities no longer added a fixed amount to the fighting value of the defenders, rather they have random archery shots between each strike of the defenders.

Although heroes were still obtainable in the usual way, it was now possible to routinely produce them in the top level castles as well.

The city upgrades became more important, as the level of city determines the range of units it can produce. The races in game became predefined: Each of these races had their traits, giving them advantages and disadvantages regarding the race of opposing player.

Each player had a certain favored race, and the pace of production of units belonging to other races depended on the interracial relations.

The player's character in this game was personified as a special unit which only involved in battles over capital city and couldn't move around the map.

Under the feudal system of Europe, nobility—whether feudal lords, knights, princes or barons—were warlords in that they served as regional leaders who exercised military, economic and political control over subnational territories and maintained private armies to maintain that status.

While their political power to exercise social order, welfare and regional defense within their territory was derived from hereditary rights or edicts from the monarch, their military strength afforded them independence and strength to negotiate for privileges.

Should the feudal lord or other noble withdraw his support from the king, either in rebellion or to form an alliance with a rival kingdom, that feudal lord or noble was now ascribing to the political order of Ungoverned Warlordism.

Within political science there is a growing body of research and analysis on warlordism that has emerged within weak states that have gained independence as a result of the collapse of empire.

While warlords are commonly viewed as regional leaders who threaten the sovereignty of a state, there are a number of states where the central government functions in collusion with warlords to achieve its goal of exercising its sovereignty over regions that would otherwise fall outside its control.

In such decentralized states, particularly those where armed groups challenge national sovereignty, warlords can serve as useful allies of a central government that is unable to establish a monopoly over the use of force within its national territory.

As political scientist Dr. Ariel Hernandez documented, one example is the Philippines, where successive presidential administrations—at least since Ferdinand Marcos secured power in —have "franchised violence to regional warlords" to counter the inroads of communist insurgents, Islamic rebels and organized criminal gangs.

This has led to the formation of at least 93 "Partisan Armed Groups", armed militias loyal to regional warlords who, in exchange for their loyalty and willingness to use their private armies to quell the threats from these opposition groups, are granted a degree of autonomy within designated regions, the exclusive right to use violence and the right "to profit from the 'economy of violence' that they establish in their own areas".

Warlordism in Afghanistan—another state where the central government is unable to extend political, military or bureaucratic control over large swaths of territories outside the capital—functions cooperatively within the framework of the state, at times.

The warlords, with their established militias, are able to maintain a monopoly of violence within certain territories. They form coalitions with competing warlords and local tribal leaders to present the central government with a challenge, and often the state will bargain to gain access to resources or " rent ", loyalty from the warlord and peace in the region.

In exchange for peaceful coexistence, the warlord coalitions are granted special status and privileges, including the right to maintain de facto political rule within the agreed-upon territory, exert force to retain their monopoly over violence and extract rent and resources.

In the case of Afghanistan, the state-warlord bargaining sometimes extends beyond these informal accords and elevates to the status of political clientelism , in which the warlords are appointed to formal government positions, such as regional governor, a title which provides them political legitimacy.

It has been shown that during the state-warlord bargaining phase, warlords in Afghanistan have a high motivation to prolong war to create political instability, expose weakness of the central state, prompt regional criticism against the government and continue economic extraction.

In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, political scientist Jesse Driscoll emphasizes how the collapse of the Soviet Union precipitated the entification of militant, independence-seeking nationalist movements within the republics —particularly within the Central Asian and Caucasus regions—resulting in armed conflict and civil war.

Strongmen warlords—many of whom had previously served in the Soviet military, police units or intelligence services and had experience operating within highly organized bureaucracies—formed well-structured militias that not only established political and economic control over territories, but institutionalized bureaucracies to establish and maintain their monopolies over violence and rent and "incentivizing the behavior of citizens within a particular geographical space".

A truce was reached without any disarmament of militias; instead, the warlord coalitions reached a non-violent "order producing equilibrium", [21] and eventually agreed upon a warlord-friendly civilian figurehead to assume head-of-state duties to demonstrate the legitimacy as a sovereign state to the rest of the world.

This opened up Georgia and Tajikistan as states eligible to receive international aid , which thereafter became a major source of "rent" for the warlords, providing them with resources to increase their power and influence over these societies.

As Driscoll observed, the "warlords colluded to create a state". One political theory, pioneered by American economist Mancur Olson , posits that warlords can function as stationary bandits.

In some African states warlord politics can be a product of endowment-rich, extractable resources. Some nations, including Liberia and Sierra Leone, have had stationary bandits who use extraction of resources such as diamonds, cobalt and timber in order to increase their political power.

They often enforce their right to these resources by claiming to be protecting the people. The result is a political system in which a dominant coalition of warlords strips and distributes valuable assets in exchange for bureaucratic services and security from foreign firms.

Stationary bandits can amass power because of their economic connections with foreign firms. Oftentimes warlords will exert violence on a particular region in order to gain control.

Once in control, these warlords can expropriate the property or resources from the people and land and redistribute the riches in exchange for monetary value.

When people live in a particular region dominated by a warlord, they can choose to flee or live within the political structure the warlords have created.

If the warlords provide protection against external threats of violence, the people will be likely to stay and continue living and working in that region, even though they are being extorted.

The trade-off becomes protection for extraction, and this political framework is common in periphery regions of countries which do not have a strong central government.

Present-day Afghanistan is a multiethnic, multilingual country occupied by distinct and often competing tribal societies, where national borders were defined only following decolonization in , when the British signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi.

The territory, which sits at the crossroads of the Silk Road , has been conquered and occupied by powerful neighboring civilizations throughout history and had no lasting central state government prior to the termination of Britain's military presence in Afghanistan following the relinquishment of the British Raj and Partition of India and Pakistan.

Historically, power in Afghanistan has been decentralized and governance resigned locally to ethnic tribal leadership. Tribal leaders act as local warlords, representing either a tribal confederacy, a tribal kinship group or a smaller tribal lineage grouping, and are expected to provide security, justice and social services to their respective constituencies.

One of the lingering geopolitical crises stemming from British colonialism is the challenge to Pashtun society posed by the Durand Line , the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan demarcated by the British, which dissects the traditional tribal territory of the Pashtuns.

Although the United States and its coalition allies have expended a considerable amount of time, effort and resources attempting to foment the centralization of government and consolidation of power in the state with its seat of power in Kabul [32] [33] [34] [35] tribal warlords continue to maintain political influence and power throughout the country outside of Kabul.

While most warlords have power invested in them through traditional tribal customs, some hold formal regional government positions, but in both cases cooperation with the central government remains voluntary and reliant on incentives.

Warlordism was widespread in Civil War-era Russia — Many territories were not under the control of either the Red government in Petrograd later in Moscow or the White governments in Omsk and Rostov.

These territories were controlled by warlords of various political colors. The Cossack ataman Semyonov held territories in the Transbaikalia region, and the Bloody Baron Ungern von Sternberg was the dictator of Mongolia for a short time.

Note that White generals such as Kolchak or Denikin are not considered warlords, because they created a legitimate, though troubled, government and military command.

The term "warlord" was frequently used when Russian and Chechen conflicts were reignited in the s. Liberia's former president Charles Taylor was indicted as a diamond-embezzling warlord who aided and abetted African rebels who committed heinous atrocities against millions of African people.

After seizing power from President Samuel Doe in a rebellion, Taylor won elections in His critics say that he bullied and bought his way to power, and once he obtained it he established himself as one of the most brutal and murderous warlords in Africa.

During his term of office Taylor was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War — His close friends included the late Col.

Muammar Gaddafi of Libya; the conservative former ruler of Ivory Coast, Felix Houphouet-Boigny ; the President of Burkina Faso, Blaise Compaore ; and a plethora of businessmen--local and foreign--who were bent on making money in Liberia and disregarded UN disapproval.

He was found guilty in April of all 11 charges levied by the Special Court, including terror, murder and rape. Throughout history, warlordism was the dominant feature of politics in China , where regional emperors exercised military, political, economic and social control over kingdoms whose territorial boundaries were constantly changing due to temporary alliances and unification of kingdoms or through inter-kingdom warfare.

Seminal moments in China's warlord history include the Warring States period, Qin's wars of unification , the Han dynasty , the era of Three Kingdoms , the Jin Dynasty and the 16 Kingdoms , the Tang dynasty which resulted in the highest concentration of warlord competition in China and gave rise to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

The modern era of warlordism in China commenced with the Wuchang uprising and Xinhai Revolution , when the relative stability of China's last Imperial Dynasty, the Qing , was disrupted by a large-scale rebellion of provinces seeking independence and status as republics.

Although he ascended with legitimacy into his role of leadership of the KMT by succeeding Sun Yat-sen , led the KMT on the Northern Expedition that unified China as a republic by and served as de facto leader of the Republic of China from —75, Chiang Kai-shek is considered a warlord.

His ascendancy to leadership in China resulted from a series of military campaigns that he initiated first as commander of an irregular militia in Shanghai's International Settlement during the Warlord Era, then increased his power as garrison commander of KMT forces in Guangzhou , then unified the regional armed forces of the KMT to form the Nationalist Revolutionary Army and led the two-year Northern Expedition campaign —28 that not only defeated the Beiyang Army and toppled the Beiyang government , but also conquered and conscripted the forces of all rival warlords who posed a threat to his vision of unifying China.

Chiang Kai-shek's entire tenure as de facto leader of the Republic of China from until , when the Nationalist army was decisively defeated by Mao Zedong 's People's Liberation Army and the KMT fled the Chinese mainland to establish the ROC on Taiwan, was maintained under the auspices of his position as Chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist government.

His power was derived from his ability to maintain the loyalty of the armed forces, not from the political legitimacy of democratic elections.

This path to leadership and the military-political order he established to rule China constitutes warlordism.

At the time of disintegration, many warlords tried to enthrone themselves or rule the khanate jointly; however, there had been powerful de facto leaders in all parts of the Mongol Empire before.

The empire and the states that emerged from it were born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits. These warlords, such as Genghis Khan and his immediate successors, conquered nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent armies as far as central Europe and Southeast Asia.

Warlords in Mongolia could be characterized by this title because of the Mongol Empire's lack of definitive borders and consistent expansion and conquest during the 13th and 14th centuries.

The Twelve Warlords War was a period ranging from —68 characterized by chaos and civil war. As a result, the country fractured into 12 regions, each led by a warlord.

This resulted in conflicts and war among the regional warlords, who all sought to expand their territory and enhance their power.

Warlordism in Europe is usually connected to various mercenary companies and their chieftains, which often were de facto power-holders in the areas where they resided.

Such free companies would arise in a situation when the recognized central power had collapsed, such as in the Great Interregnum in Germany —78 or in France during the Hundred Years' War after the Battle of Poitiers ; and in the Kingdom of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

Several condottieri in Italy can also be classified as warlords. The Imperial commanders-in-chief during the reign of Emperor Maximilian I did hold the title Kriegsherr , of which the direct translation was "warlord", but they were not warlords in the sense of the word defined.

Other warlords could be found in the British Isles during the Middle Ages and up into the Early Modern period ; such examples include Brian Boru of Ireland and Guthrum of the Danelaw , who was the commander of the Great Heathen Army and nearly conquered all of England, [44] Alfred of Anglo-Saxon England , [45] first man to unify the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Europe, although it would not be completed until Edward the Elder 's reign, in which he conquered the last remnants of the Danelaw.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Another diplomacy-related feature introduced in Reign of Heroes was the ability to bribe enemies, thus influencing their diplomatic decisions.

The amount of bribe was fine-tunable; the more substantial bribe was, the greater chances of needed decision were. In addition to the previously available multiplayer modes hotseat and play by email the Reign of Heroes introduced the ability to play over network.

Darklords Rising — a stand-alone expansion pack. It featured the new maps and units and contained the sample graphics to facilitate development of alternative tile, army and city sets.

The plot of the main campaign continued where the previous game had left off. By the time of Warlords III games' releases the real-time strategy game genre was in full-swing, so there was less of a market for turn-based games.

The oncoming rush of first person shooters and first generation MMORPGs also didn't help the popularity of the series.

The turn-based strategy genre in general would take a hit during this period. Warlords IV , released in , [8] used pre-rendered 3D sprites for its unit and city graphics and particle graphics for various effects.

Despite this, the game had an overall 2D look to it. The game flow was dramatically simplified. Diplomacy played virtually no role in the game, and micromanagement of units was scaled-down to a great extent.

Rather than having multiple units battling it out at once, combat is one-on-one: The units with ranged attack capabilities get involved in every round in the battle regardless of active unit though.

In warfare, the cities no longer added a fixed amount to the fighting value of the defenders, rather they have random archery shots between each strike of the defenders.

Although heroes were still obtainable in the usual way, it was now possible to routinely produce them in the top level castles as well. The city upgrades became more important, as the level of city determines the range of units it can produce.

The races in game became predefined: Each of these races had their traits, giving them advantages and disadvantages regarding the race of opposing player.

Each player had a certain favored race, and the pace of production of units belonging to other races depended on the interracial relations.

The player's character in this game was personified as a special unit which only involved in battles over capital city and couldn't move around the map.

The defeat of the warlord led to defeat of the player, so that all his cities became neutral. Depending on the traits the player picked at the time of warlord creation, he got some benefits and limitations in the game.

The warlord character could be reused in other campaigns. Warlords Battlecry is a real-time strategy computer game released in July for Microsoft Windows.

Two sequels were released: The game spawned several sequels. Unlike the original game the remake featured several multiple language support with several localizations available.

FreeLords intends to be a turn-based strategy game like the original Warlords. The development began with removal of features not found in the original game.

Identification and implementation of missing Warlords II functionality followed. Warbarons can be played for free within a web-browser.

Being web-based makes it easier to find human opponents to play with. Development was started in by Mattias Carlstrom and Jonte Rydberg, initially not intended to be a Warlords clone.

However, with help from members of the Warlords' player community, the game developed many striking similarities: Notable differences to Warlords are: As of August , Warbarons [18] is fully playable online and still actively maintained and improved by its original developers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Warlords video game. This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents.

Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page.

Warlords video game. Challenge of the Warlords. Retrieved 26 December Reign of Heroes Review". Reign of Heroes Preview".

Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 5 May What Happened to Turn-Based Games? Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 6 May Challenge of the Warlords Puzzle Quest: Galactrix Puzzle Quest 2.

Retrieved from " https: Multiplayer hotseat games 4X video games Video game franchises introduced in Video games developed in Australia Warlords series.

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